Číslo 1, Roč. 103 (2016)

Editorial

Úvodem
Proč je dobré mít antropologii
Abstract
Tento dokument vypracoval výkonný výbor European Association of Social Anthropologists v návaznosti na konferenci a zasedání této asociace ve dnech 14.–15. října 2015 v Praze. Na konferenci se sešlo více než 50 antropologů ze 17 různých zemí a společně se zamýšleli nad tím, co může v dnešní Evropě obor sociální a kulturní antropologie změnit. Na organizaci tohoto zasedání, které se konalo ve stínu probíhající uprchlické krize, se rovněž odílel Etnologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i., a Česká asociace pro sociální antropologii. Finančně na něj přispěla Akademie věd ČR v rámci programu Strategie AV21.

Studie

Význam antropologie v době vzestupu islamofobie a „uprchlické krize“: případ Polska
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.04
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of multiculturalism in Poland, with the reference point being Islamophobia and the attitude towards ‘the Other’, especially immigrants in Europe. It is argued that today’s attitudes towards the Other result from the most recent history, marked by the interwar, wartime and postWWII nationalisms, seven decades of a relative ethnic and cultural homogeneity of society, recent migration trends in Europe, the current ‘refugee crisis’ and worldwide spreading of a fear of terrorism, overwhelmingly bolstered by the media. These phenomena are scrutinized by referring to the example of Muslims living in Poland. An appeal for anthropological action in the social and political domain informed by expert knowledge is advocated.
Veřejná antropologie ve 21. století, s některými příklady z Norska
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.02
Abstract
Although there seems to be broad agreement within the discipline about the desirability of a public anthropology, there is less certainty, or agreement, not only about how to achieve it in a responsible way but also about its very raison-d’être. What should an anthropology which engages closely with non-academic publics seek to achieve? Starting with a historical overview, the article argues that the lack of a clear societal task or assignment liberates anthropology from problem solving for the state, enabling it to stimulate the collective imagination by making bold comparisons and unexpected conjectures. The empirical examples from Norway show how public anthropologists can successfully mix the ‘light’ and the ‘heavy’ in getting their argument across and raising anthropological issues while also engaging with a broad, non-academic public.
Obranné strategie obyvatelstva českého a ukrajinského původu na Ukrajině vyvolané následky černobylské nukleární havárie
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.06
Abstract
The text focuses on the theme of health care and amateur treatment in the extreme conditions of increased radiation after the explosion of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl power plant. It reconstructs the plight of the population from the accounts of residents living near the Chernobyl power plant, some of whom resettled in the Czech Republic, and analyses the relationship of the new state of affairs for folk healing. The text shows the logic of the adaptation mechanisms of the group of people to the new circumstances and their mobilization of the cognitive potential in the conditions in which professional aid and biomedicine, which they commonly used, failed. Besides the traditional practices of folk treatment, innovations based on scraps of information gathered from the mass media, reading, knowledge of a healthy lifestyle, the application of extreme medical cures devised by doctors through experimentation, assert themselves under extreme conditions. Other than the information on the application of specific methods and procedures, the text shows the process of how ‘human wisdom’ on health and disease is formed and adapts to a new, in this case extreme, situation. In an individualized, complex society, these ideas are distinctly private, flexible and situational.
Rozvoj zdola nahoru. Studie samoorganizace a budování blahobytu u Torgutů v Bulgan Sum v Mongolsku
Abstract
K místním komunitám v nezápadních zemích přistupují mezinárodní instituce často jako k pasivním subjektům, které je třeba vzdělávat pomocí expertů a reorganizovat podle západních socioekonomických modelů (Hobart 1993). Takový přístup vede k tomu, že řada rozvojových agentur mnohdy přehlíží a nezohledňuje vlastní formy společenské činnosti místních komunit a jejich pojetí sebeorganizace. V tomto článku se zaměřujeme na proces změny v současném Mongolsku, probíhající zdola nahoru, a na vlastní, osobité představy a praktiky Mongolů, pokud jde o iniciování a zajištění rozvoje. Odkazujeme na výzkum provedený ve správním obvodu (somonu) Bulgan, nacházejícím se na jižních svazích Altaje. Od roku 2012 jsme prováděli terénní výzkum u dnešních Torgutů. Především se zaměřujeme na posttransformační ekonomické aktivity v Bulganu, k nimž patří kolektivní správa statků (Empson 2014), a na nové druhy podnikání, spojeného s přeshraničním obchodem. Studie pojednává o neformálních sítích podnikatelů a jejich způsobu budování vzájemně spřízněných obchodních vztahů. V tomto kontextu analyzujeme činnost uskupení „Torgon Nutag Club“, založeného skupinou torgutských podnikatelů, kteří ve svém domovském městě iniciovali a pořádali řadu sociálních a kulturních akcí a různých oslav. Většina členů klubu žije v Ulánbátaru – v takzvaném „Torgutském městě“, které lze dnes považovat za jedno z hlavních intelektuálních center torgutské činnosti. Důležitá je zejména skutečnost, že Torguti tímto způsobem vytvářejí nejen spontánní a originální společenské organizace, ale také osobitý styl duchovně prospěšné činnosti. Podporují tak složky společného osudu, bohatství prosperity, životní energie a síly.
Making Anthropology Matter in the Heyday of Islamophobia and the ‘Refugee Crisis’: The Case of Poland
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.03
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of multiculturalism in Poland, with the reference point being Islamophobia and the attitude towards ‘the Other’, especially immigrants in Europe. It is argued that today’s attitudes towards the Other result from the most recent history, marked by the interwar, wartime and postWWII nationalisms, seven decades of a relative ethnic and cultural homogeneity of society, recent migration trends in Europe, the current ‘refugee crisis’ and worldwide spreading of a fear of terrorism, overwhelmingly bolstered by the media. These phenomena are scrutinized by referring to the example of Muslims living in Poland. An appeal for anthropological action in the social and political domain informed by expert knowledge is advocated.
Public Anthropology in the 21st Century, with Some Examples from Norway
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.01
Abstract
Although there seems to be broad agreement within the discipline about the desirability of a public anthropology, there is less certainty, or agreement, not only about how to achieve it in a responsible way but also about its very raison-d’être. What should an anthropology which engages closely with non-academic publics seek to achieve? Starting with a historical overview, the article argues that the lack of a clear societal task or assignment liberates anthropology from problem solving for the state, enabling it to stimulate the collective imagination by making bold comparisons and unexpected conjectures. The empirical examples from Norway show how public anthropologists can successfully mix the ‘light’ and the ‘heavy’ in getting their argument across and raising anthropological issues while also engaging with a broad, non-academic public.
The Defensive Strategies of Czech and Ukrainian Residents in the Ukraine against the Effects of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.05
Abstract
The text focuses on the theme of health care and amateur treatment in the extreme conditions of increased radiation after the explosion of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl power plant. It reconstructs the plight of the population from the accounts of residents living near the Chernobyl power plant, some of whom resettled in the Czech Republic, and analyses the relationship of the new state of affairs for folk healing. The text shows the logic of the adaptation mechanisms of the group of people to the new circumstances and their mobilization of the cognitive potential in the conditions in which professional aid and biomedicine, which they commonly used, failed. Besides the traditional practices of folk treatment, innovations based on scraps of information gathered from the mass media, reading, knowledge of a healthy lifestyle, the application of extreme medical cures devised by doctors through experimentation, assert themselves under extreme conditions. Other than the information on the application of specific methods and procedures, the text shows the process of how ‘human wisdom’ on health and disease is formed and adapts to a new, in this case extreme, situation. In an individualized, complex society, these ideas are distinctly private, flexible and situational.
Creating Bottom-up Development. A Study of Self-Organization and the Building of Fortune- Prosperity by the Torghuts from the Bulgan Sum in Mongolia
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.07
Abstract
The local communities in non-Western countries approach international institutions often as passive subjects that need to be educated by means of experts and reorganize according to Western socio-economic models (Hobart 1993). Such an approach leads to the fact that many development agencies often overlooked and disregarded their own forms of social activities for local communities and their concept of self-organization. In this article we focus on the process of change in contemporary Mongolia, bottom-up, and on their own, distinctive ideas and practices of the Mongols, in terms of initiating and ensure development. Refer to the research conducted in the administrative district (Simon) Bulgan, located on the southern slopes of the Altai. Since 2012, we conducted field research in today Torgutů. Mainly we focus on the post-economic activity in Bulgan, including collective management of assets (Empson 2014), and new types of business associated with cross-border trade. The study discusses the informal networks of entrepreneurs and their way of building mutually related business relationships. In this context, we analyze the activity group "Torgon Nutag Club", a group founded torgutských entrepreneurs who in her hometown initiated and organized a number of social and cultural events and various celebrations. Most of the club members live in Ulaanbaatar - the so-called "Torgutském city" can be considered one of the main intellectual centers torgutské activity. Particular importance is the fact that Torguti this way not only creates a spontaneous and genuine social organizations but also individual style spiritually beneficial activities. Thus encourage constituents common destiny, wealth, prosperity, stamina, and strength.