During the 16th and 17th centuries, an extensive transformation of clothing habits took place in Central Europe. The era of the national styles of clo-thing had concluded and was replaced by widespread preference of the highly fashionable Spanish – and later French – clothing sets.New garments were fully accepted mainly by nobles and, over time, also among burghers.The question remains how and by whom they were passed on to the rural population. Our attention is focused mainly on urban tailors’ guilds, which had a dominant position in the production of urban as well as rural clothing, due to regulations. Their creations are captured in several period depictions, and their abundance in towns as well as in the coun-tryside is evidenced by inventories of estates and bequests to orphans. Clothing constructions are included in tailors’ pattern books, which have been preserved in Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, and Germany. The comparison of the three mentioned source types in this study brings new information about the formation, types, and representation of individual components of men’s clothing
This article considers the place as filled with symbolic meanings of different groups controlling the place at different periods in history. The article focuses on the example of the Soviet military zone in Transbaikalia which in the early 1930s was created in the Buddhist Buryat monastery of Tsugol. The military zone was to replace the previous identity of the place by appropriating the meanings and symbols attached to the monastery. Fifty years after, in the post-Soviet period the place has been “re-appropriated” by the Buryat Buddhist monastery. The article considers the practices of appropriation, re-appropriation of the place, and the way the competing narrations are merging into multilocal phenomenon.
Birds around the Pacific are identified with human activities, and often with people themselves. This article explores the pervasive use of birds and avian imagery by Pacific islanders in legend, song, canoe construction, and navigation. It considers a preoccupation with birds in diverse spheres of island life, but with special attention to maritime activities.
The essay submits basic information about particular types of traditional earth architecture in Iran. The essay emphasizes the ethnological aspect of the researched theme. The continuous uninterrupted building activities in using the earth, which lasted nearby ten thousand years, resulted in houses, domes, prayer rooms, castles, palaces, and several towns, whereby traces left by this very long tradition can be found in the country even today. Notwithstanding the exceptional historical and architectural values of earth structures, it is possible to observe a plethora of historical buildings in modern-day Iran, which have survived as torsos to exemplify the former glory of earth architecture of this country. The activities connected with the revitalization of original earth architecture are bound to the activity of university and research institutions – Yazd, Tehran, Esfahak Mud Centre, which also are taken into consideration in the text.