Datum zveřejnění:





The author discusses the issues of social exclusion from a neurobiological point of view. Exploring them at all facets she illustrates trajectory of human body trapped in a vicious circle of violence, suggesting that human body in the process of enculturation, if consistently excluded, transorms itself into a disempowered, submissive and traumatised body. The only valid way to break this vicious circle is to evoke empathy in human beings based not only on affective emotions, but on sensory feelings as well. The concept of “situated cognition” as an approach to fight against social exclusion is unfolded. The author’s arguments are based on her fieldowork experiences among street children in Tanzania that inextricably have intermingled with her own lifespan trajectory.

Klíčová slova

neurobiology, social exclusion, everyday trauma, situated cognition, racism, empathy

Text článku


Albert, Mathieu & McGuire, Wendy. 2014. Understanding Change in Academic Knowledge Production. Fields of Knowledge: Science, Politics and Publics in the Neoliberal Age Political Power and Social Theory, 27: 33-57.
Aptekar, Lewis&Stocklin, Daniel. 1997. Children in Particularly Difficult Circumstances: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. In J. Berry, P. R. Dasen, T. S. Saraswathi (eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2nd ed.), Vol. 2, Basic Processes and Development Psychology, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, pp. 377-412.

Arendt, Hannah. 1964. Eichmann in Jerusalem. A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: The Viking Press.
Bourgois, Phillippe. 2001. The power of violence in war and peace Post-Cold War lessons from El Salvador, Ethnography 2 (1): 5-34.

Bourgois, Phillippe. 2009. Recognizing Invisible Violence. A Thirty-Year Perpective, In B. Rylko-Bauer, Linda Whiteford, and P. Farmer, (eds.) Global Health in Times of Violence. Santa Fe, NM: School of Advanced Research Press, pp. 18-40.
Dalai Lama & Howard Cutler. 2009. The Art of Happiness in a Troubled World. New York: DoubleDay.
Daniel, Valentine E., 1996. Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropography of Violence. Princeton University Press.
Dominguez, Virginia R. 2012. Comfort Zones and Their Dangers: Who Are We? Qui Sommes-Nous? American Anthropologist, 114 (3): 394-405.
Donald, Merlin. 2001. A Mind so Rare .The Evolution of Human Consciousness. New York, NY:W.W.Norton.
Downey, Greg & Lende, Daniel H. 2012. Evolution and the Brain, In D.H. Lende & G. Downey (eds.), The Encultured Brain: An Introduction to Neuroanthropology, The MIT Press, pp. 103-139.
Dyregov, Atle & Gupla Leila, et all. 2002. Is the Culture Always Right? Traumatology, 8(3):135-145.
Ennew, Judith. 2003. Difficult Circumstances: Some Reflections on “Street Children” in Africa, Children, Youth and Environments, 13 (1): 81-104.
Eisenberger Naomi I. & Lieberman Matthew D. & Williams Kipling D. 2003. Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion, Science, 302: 290-292.
Farmer, Paul. 2004. An Anthropology of Structural Violence. Current Anthropology 45(3): 305-325.
Geertz, Clifford. 1988. Works and Lives. The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Kapuściński, Ryszard. 1992. The Soccer War. New York: Vintage Books.
MacKinnon, Catherine C. & Fuentes Augustin. 2012. Primate Social Cognition, Human Evolution, and Niche Construction: A Core Context for Neuroanthropology, In D.H. Lende & G. Downey (eds.), The Encultured Brain: An Introduction to Neuroanthropology, The MIT Press, pp. 67-103.
Panter-Brick, Catherine & Pollard T. M. 1999. Work and Hormonal variation in subsistence and industrial contexts, In C. Panter-Brick & C. M. Worthman (eds.) Hormones, Health and Behaviour. A Socio-Ecological and Lifespan Perspective, Cambridge University Press, pp. 139-184.
Panter-Brick, Catherine. 2002. Street Children, Human Rights, and Public Health. A Critique and Future Directions. Annual Review Anthropology, 31: 147-171.

Panter-Brick, Catherine. 2004. Homelessness, poverty, and risks to health: beyond at risk categorizations of street children. Children’s Geographies, 2 (1): 83–94.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Bourgois, Phillippe (eds.). 2003. Violence in Peace and War. An Anthology. Wiley Blackwell.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Bourgois, Phillippe. 2004. Comments, In P. Farmer. An Anthropology of Structural Violence. Current Anthropology 45(3): 317-318.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Lock, Margaret M. 1987. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon to Future Work in Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 1(1):6-4.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 1995. The Primacy of the Ethical. Propositions for a Militant Anthropology. Current Anthropology, 36 (3): 409-440.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 2008. A Talent for Life: Reflections on Human Vulnerability and Resilience. Ethnos, 73(1): 25-56.
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. 1968. Violence. America in the Sixties. New York: Signet Books.
Singer, Tania & Seymour, Ben & O’Doherty John & Kaube, Holger et all. Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but not Sensory Components of Pain, Science 303:1157-1162.
Wilson, Margaret. 2002. Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (4): 625-636.
Wacquant, Lo¨ıc.2005.  Carnal Connections: On Embodiment, Apprenticeship, and Membership, Qualitative Sociology, 28 (4): 445-474.